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Mother’s Day: Historical Origins and Diverse Celebrations

Introduction to Mother’s Day

Mother’s Day is more than just a date on the calendar. It is a cherished tradition, a heartfelt celebration observed by millions, if not billions, around the globe. This special day is dedicated to acknowledging the profound contributions, the countless sacrifices, and the boundless love of mothers, whether they are biological, adoptive, stepmothers, or spiritual guides.

This day of honoring mothers transcends geographical boundaries and cultural divides, uniting people under the universal umbrella of maternal love. It is a day when children, no matter how old, pause to reflect on the pivotal role of mothers in their lives. It is a day when society as a whole takes a moment to recognize and appreciate the pillars upon which it is built – mothers.

In this article, we delve deep into the rich history and cultural significance of Mother’s Day, journeying back to its roots and tracing its evolution. We explore the historical milestones that shaped this beloved tradition, from its ancient origins to its modern manifestations. We seek to shed light on how this day, initially observed in a small town in the United States, has spread across continents, being adopted and adapted by different cultures, each bringing its unique flavor to the celebration.

Furthermore, we examine how Mother’s Day varies across different regions, revealing the myriad ways in which this universal sentiment of love and gratitude is expressed. From the heartfelt letters and hand-picked flowers to grand feasts and public ceremonies, we provide a glimpse into the world’s diverse expressions of motherly love.

Mother's Day

The Origins of Mother’s Day

Ancient Celebrations

The tradition of honoring mothers and motherhood dates back to the earliest civilizations, illustrating that the impulse to celebrate mothers is as old as human society itself. Mother’s Day, in its many forms, can be traced back to a variety of historical and cultural practices.

For instance, the ancient Greeks held annual spring festivals dedicated to maternal goddesses. They honored Rhea, the wife of Cronus and the mother of many deities in Greek mythology, with honey-cakes, fine drinks, and floral offerings. Similarly, the ancient Romans celebrated a spring festival called Hilaria in honor of Cybele, a mother goddess. This celebration lasted for three days and included parades, games, and masquerades.

Moving forward in time, early Christians celebrated a day known as “Mothering Sunday,” which was originally a time to return to one’s ‘mother church’—the main church or cathedral in the region—for a special service. Over time, Mothering Sunday transitioned into a more secular holiday, where children would present their mothers with flowers and other tokens of appreciation. This tradition eventually merged with the modern Mother’s Day in many parts of Europe.

The Modern History of Mother’s Day

The Mother’s Day we are familiar with today largely originated in the United States, sparked by the dedication and determination of a woman named Anna Jarvis. Following the death of her own mother in 1905, Jarvis sought to create a day that would honor the sacrifices mothers made for their children. She envisioned it as a day of rest for mothers, a time for families to visit and take care of their matriarchs.

After much campaigning, letter-writing, and garnering the support of influential figures, Jarvis’s idea came to fruition. Mother’s Day was officially recognized as a national holiday in the United States in 1914, with President Woodrow Wilson proclaiming the second Sunday in May as a time for “public expression of our love and reverence for the mothers of our country.”

Over time, this tradition spread globally, carried by soldiers during World War I and II, adopted and adapted by diverse cultures and customs. From the United States, it traveled across oceans and continents, blossoming in different lands, each adding its unique cultural touch while preserving the core sentiment of honoring and expressing love for mothers. Today, Mother’s Day is celebrated in various ways around the world, a testament to the universal and timeless appreciation for mothers.

Mother's Day

Common Traditions and Customs

Despite the rich diversity in regional traditions, there is a thread of commonality that weaves through the global celebration of Mother’s Day. One finds common practices and rituals that span cultures, creating a shared language of love and appreciation for mothers.

In many countries, it’s customary to honor mothers with tokens of appreciation such as cards, flowers, or other gifts. This tradition is particularly prominent in the United States, where Mother’s Day is one of the biggest holidays for consumer spending. Children, both young and adult, put thought and effort into selecting the perfect gift that expresses their love and gratitude.

Flowers, especially carnations, are a popular gift choice. The tradition of giving carnations on Mother’s Day was started by Anna Jarvis herself, who sent 500 white carnations to every mother in her late mother’s church on the first official Mother’s Day celebration in 1908. Today, florists across the nation witness a surge in orders of bouquets, particularly of carnations and roses, symbolizing love and gratitude.

Cards, often handmade by younger children, are another staple of Mother’s Day. These heartfelt notes, filled with words of love and appreciation, often become keepsakes that mothers cherish. In fact, according to the Greeting Card Association, an estimated 152 million Mother’s Day cards are sent annually, making Mother’s Day the third-largest card-sending holiday in the U.S.

Mother’s Day is also considered a day off for mothers in many households. Families often take their mothers out for meals, treating them to their favorite cuisines in their favorite restaurants. In recent years, cooking for mothers at home has gained popularity as well, with breakfast in bed being a cherished tradition. It’s a day when mothers can put their feet up and enjoy being pampered by their loved ones.

Moreover, many also use the day to express their love and gratitude towards their mothers through calls or heartfelt messages. For those who live far from their mothers, a phone or video call becomes a bridge that distances cannot weaken. These calls carry voices heavy with love and respect, voices that say ‘I love you’, ‘thank you’, and ‘I miss you’, echoing the sentiments that Mother’s Day stands for.

These shared customs, while simple, carry a profound significance. They serve to create a moment of pause in our busy lives, a moment dedicated to expressing our deepest emotions towards our mothers. They remind us, and our mothers, of the unique and irreplaceable role they play in our lives.

Mother's Day

How Mother’s Day Is Celebrated Around the World

North and South America

In North America, Mother’s Day is typically celebrated on the second Sunday in May with gifts, cards, and family meals. It’s a day for children and fathers to take over household duties, allowing mothers to enjoy some well-deserved rest.

South American countries also celebrate with much fanfare. In Mexico, it’s customary to start the celebration with a serenade for mothers. In Argentina, Mother’s Day is celebrated in October, marking the completion of the harvest season.


In the UK, Mother’s Day, also known as Mothering Sunday, is celebrated on the fourth Sunday of Lent. Traditionally, people visited their ‘mother church’ and it gradually became an occasion to honor mothers with gifts and flowers.

In Spain, Mother’s Day is celebrated on the first Sunday in May, while in France and Sweden, it is observed on the last Sunday in May, often with family gatherings and meals.


In Asia, traditions vary significantly. In India, the western concept of Mother’s Day has been adopted and is widely celebrated with flowers, cards, and gifts. In Japan, Mother’s Day, or Haha-no-hi, is marked by children drawing pictures of their mothers and presenting them with red carnations.


In many African countries, Mother’s Day is celebrated, though not always on the same day as the western tradition. In Ethiopia, mothers are celebrated with a three-day festival called Antrosht, which involves large family gatherings and a feast.

Australia and Oceania

In Australia, Mother’s Day is celebrated similarly to the U.S., with gifts, breakfast in bed, and carnations being the flower of choice. In Samoa, a full week is dedicated to mothers, known as Teuila Week, with singing, dancing, and gift-giving.

Mother's Day

The Importance and Influence of Mothers in Society

Mothers, whether biological, adoptive, step, or those who’ve taken on the role in absence of the title, hold an essential and irreplaceable position in our society. Their influence extends beyond the confines of the home, touching every facet of our lives and the world we live in.

Often, mothers serve as primary caregivers, a role that carries immense responsibility and impact. They nurture and guide, providing not only physical sustenance but also emotional and intellectual nourishment. They shape the future generation, instilling wisdom, values, and lessons that help their children navigate the world. The morals we uphold, the beliefs we espouse, and even the habits we form often have their roots in the lessons we learned from our mothers.

Moreover, mothers are leaders, both within their households and in the wider world. They lead by example, demonstrating resilience in the face of adversity, strength in moments of weakness, and love in every circumstance. They set the tone for their families, fostering environments of respect, empathy, and kindness.

In the professional sphere, mothers are entrepreneurs, influencers, educators, and more. They balance their roles at home with their careers, often juggling multiple responsibilities with grace and determination. They break barriers, challenge norms, and contribute significantly to economic growth and social progress.

In addition, mothers often serve as the backbone of communities, driving local initiatives, participating in school systems, and supporting neighborhood activities. They foster a sense of unity and cooperation, strengthening the social fabric of their localities.

Mother’s Day provides an invaluable opportunity for us to reflect on these diverse roles that mothers play. It’s a day to recognize and appreciate the profound influence and impact mothers have not only on our personal lives but on society as a whole. It’s a day to acknowledge that the strength of a society can often be measured by the strength, love, and resilience of its mothers. It’s a day to celebrate the extraordinary beings that mothers are, and to say a heartfelt ‘thank you’ for their immeasurable contributions.

Mother's Day

Conclusion: The Everlasting Relevance of Mother’s Day

Mother’s Day, as we’ve discovered, is far more than just a date on the calendar. It’s not merely a holiday marked by gift-giving and family meals. It is, in essence, a symbol of our collective appreciation and recognition of the inimitable role mothers play in our lives and in our societies. It is a tribute to their undying love, their unending efforts, and their unfathomable strength.

As we have journeyed through the historical origins of Mother’s Day, tracing its roots back to ancient civilizations and following its evolution into the modern celebration we recognize today, we gain a deeper understanding of its enduring relevance. From the Greek and Roman festivals honoring mother goddesses to Anna Jarvis’s relentless campaign for a day dedicated to mothers, the essence of Mother’s Day remains consistent: honoring and celebrating the spirit of motherhood.

We’ve also ventured into the diverse global celebrations of Mother’s Day, revealing the myriad ways in which different cultures express their love and gratitude towards their mothers. Despite the variations in customs and traditions, the core sentiment remains the same across borders and cultures. It is a sentiment of appreciation, a sentiment of love, and a sentiment of profound respect.

This exploration serves to remind us of the everlasting relevance of Mother’s Day. It isn’t confined to a single day in May; instead, it epitomizes a perennial truth – the invaluable role of mothers in our lives. It reminds us that the spirit of motherhood, imbued with love, sacrifice, and resilience, is not just a one-day affair but something to be acknowledged, celebrated, and cherished every day.

As we step into the future, it is clear that the relevance of Mother’s Day will continue to endure. It will persist as a beacon of recognition for mothers’ unquantifiable contributions, as a testament to their boundless love, and as an annual reminder for us to express our deepest gratitude to the women who shape us and our world. In celebrating Mother’s Day, we celebrate the very foundations of love, nurture, and selflessness that mothers around the world embody.

Mother's Day

Who Was Anna Jarvis?

Anna Jarvis was the woman primarily responsible for establishing Mother’s Day as a national holiday in the United States.

Born in 1864 in Webster, West Virginia, Jarvis was one of eleven children, only four of whom survived to adulthood. Her mother, Ann Reeves Jarvis, was a social activist who organized Mothers’ Day Work Clubs in the years before the Civil War to improve health and sanitation conditions in her community.

After her mother’s death in 1905, Anna Jarvis sought to honor her by making Mother’s Day a recognized holiday. She wanted to acknowledge the sacrifices mothers made for their children. Jarvis envisioned Mother’s Day as a time of reflection and quiet contemplation, a chance for children to express their love and gratitude to their mothers.

Jarvis initiated the first Mother’s Day as a celebration in 1908, held at Andrews Methodist Episcopal Church in Grafton, West Virginia, which is now the International Mother’s Day Shrine. She then embarked on a letter-writing campaign to newspapers and prominent politicians, urging them to adopt the holiday. Her efforts paid off in 1914 when President Woodrow Wilson officially established the second Sunday in May as Mother’s Day.

Interestingly, Anna Jarvis never married or had children of her own. Later in her life, she expressed regret at the commercialization of the holiday, feeling that the original sentiment of love and gratitude was being lost in the sale of flowers, cards, and other gifts. She spent the later years of her life and most of her inheritance campaigning against the holiday she had helped establish. Jarvis died in 1948.

F.A.Q. About Mother’s Day

Here are answers to a few common questions you may have about Mother’s Day:

What Is Mother’s Day?

Mother’s Day is a holiday honoring motherhood. It’s typically celebrated by giving gifts and spending time with mothers and mother figures. It’s celebrated on the second Sunday in May, typically involving gift-giving, special activities, and time spent with mothers and mother figures.

When Is Mother’s Day 2024?

In the United States, Mother’s Day will be celebrated on Sunday, May 12 in 2024.

What to Write in a Mother’s Day Card?

Three examples:
. Dear Mom, thank you for your love, guidance, and support. Your strength inspires me every day. Happy Mother’s Day! Love, [Your Name].
. Mom, you’ve filled my life with love and joy. Your nurturing spirit is a gift I cherish. Happy Mother’s Day! With love, [Your Name]
. Happy Mother’s Day, Mom. Your love has shaped me into who I am. I am forever grateful. Love, [Your Name]

What to Get Mom for Mother’s Day?

Consider her interests: a new book for a reader, spa items for relaxation, cooking tools for a chef, or a personalized piece of jewelry. Always add a heartfelt note.

Is Mother’s Day the Same in Europe?

Mother’s Day isn’t uniform in Europe. For example, UK celebrates it on the fourth Sunday of Lent. However, many countries observe it on the second Sunday in May.

When Is Father’s Day?

In the United States, Father’s Day is celebrated on the third Sunday in June each year.

Next Mother’s Day Dates

Table with upcoming Mother’s Day dates:


Table With the Yearly Holidays and Observances

Table with the main Holidays and annual Celebrations in the US.

New Year’s DayCinco de MayoColumbus Day
Martin Luther King Jr. DayMother’s DayHalloween
Valentine’s DayMemorial DayElection Day
Presidents’ DayFlag DayVeterans Day
St. Patrick’s DayFather’s DayThanksgiving Day
Easter SundayJuneteenthBlack Friday
Easter MondayIndependence DayChristmas Day
Tax DayLabor DayNew Year’s Eve

I invite you to peruse our annual 2023 calendar, available with or without noted holidays.

Related Categories: Holidays

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