2024 calendars

2023 calendars

2022 calendars

Columbus Day: A Historical Controversy

Introduction to Columbus Day

Every year on the second Monday of October, the United States pays tribute to an event that fundamentally reshaped the course of global history: the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Americas in 1492. Columbus Day, as it is commonly known, is more than just a commemoration of this specific event. It is a reflection of the broader age of exploration, a period that redefined geographic boundaries and catalyzed extensive cultural, economic, and political changes worldwide.

This day is traditionally filled with a blend of celebration and education, as schools, towns, and cities across the country engage in a variety of commemorative activities. These range from vibrant parades and grandiose festivals honoring the spirit of exploration to educational programs that attempt to reacquaint a younger generation with this pivotal moment in their collective history.

However, Columbus Day has also increasingly become a focal point of controversy and debate. This isn’t a day of celebration for everyone. There are contrasting views on this holiday and the man at its center. While some appreciate Columbus as a bold explorer, others perceive him as a symbol of the devastation wrought upon indigenous populations by European colonization.

These divergent perspectives have led to intense discussions about the interpretation and commemoration of Columbus Day. For some, it is a meaningful celebration of heritage, particularly for the Italian-American community for whom Columbus – an Italian sailing under the Spanish flag – represents a key historical figure. For others, it’s a reminder of historical injustices, a day that glorifies a period marked by exploitation and violence against indigenous peoples.

In recent years, this controversy has led to a growing recognition of Indigenous Peoples’ Day, observed on the same day as Columbus Day in various parts of the country. This competing commemoration seeks to honor the history and contributions of Native Americans, providing an alternative narrative to the traditional Columbus-centric celebrations.

Columbus Day

Christopher Columbus: His Life and Journey

Born in the maritime Republic of Genoa in the mid-15th century, Christopher Columbus grew up amid Italy’s burgeoning Age of Discovery. Trained in cartography and sea navigation, Columbus was a man with ambitious dreams. His daring vision, fueled by tales of Marco Polo and other explorers, led him to propose an audacious plan: reach the wealthy trading centers of Asia by sailing westwards across the ‘Ocean Sea,’ what we now call the Atlantic Ocean.

To realize this audacious plan, Columbus needed substantial support. Despite repeated rejections, he remained undeterred. Finally, the Spanish Crown, under the rule of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, agreed to sponsor his quest. It was an investment that promised to outflank their Portuguese rivals in the race to the East Indies and bypass the traditional overland trade routes controlled by the Ottomans.

Thus, Columbus embarked on his epic journey in 1492, leading three ships: the Santa Maria, the Pinta, and the Niña. When land was sighted after a perilous journey across the Atlantic, Columbus believed he had achieved his goal of finding a western route to Asia. However, he had, in fact, arrived at the islands of the Caribbean, becoming the first European in recorded history to set foot on what would later be known as the ‘New World’.

This unexpected discovery marked a turning point in human history. It inaugurated a period of regular contact between the Old and New Worlds, leading to an era of extensive exploration and ultimately, European colonization.

Yet, these voyages of discovery were not without severe consequences for the indigenous people already inhabiting these lands. The arrival of Columbus and the settlers who followed brought with them a wave of grave repercussions. Indigenous communities, lacking immunity to European diseases, were ravaged by smallpox, measles, and other unfamiliar illnesses, which resulted in a devastating loss of life. Moreover, they faced displacement from their ancestral lands and subjugation under harsh colonial rule. The ensuing clash of cultures, diseases, and armed conflict led to a dramatic decline in their population and the loss of their way of life.

Columbus Day

The Inception of Columbus Day

The inception of Columbus Day can be traced back to the turn of the 20th century, amidst a period of growing admiration for Christopher Columbus’ voyages and increasing national sentiment among Italian-Americans. During this time, there was a burgeoning desire within this immigrant community to secure their place within the American cultural mosaic, to celebrate their contributions to American society, and to honor their shared heritage.

At the heart of the efforts to institutionalize Columbus Day was the Knights of Columbus, a prominent Catholic fraternal organization established primarily by Irish-Americans but with a rapidly growing Italian-American membership. They chose Columbus as their namesake, viewing him as a fitting symbol of Catholic maritime prowess and a figure who could bridge ethnic divides.

The Knights of Columbus, supported by other community leaders and organizations, lobbied tirelessly for the formal recognition of a holiday in honor of the Genoan explorer. They argued that such a holiday would not only commemorate Columbus’s daring maritime achievement but also provide much-needed recognition to the Italian-American community and its contributions to the country.

Their lobbying efforts bore fruit when, in 1937, President Franklin D. Roosevelt officially proclaimed October 12 as Columbus Day. The presidential proclamation was the result of a sustained campaign by the Knights and came at a time when the Italian-American community was seeking greater acceptance and integration into American society.

Thus, Columbus Day was born, intended to be a day of celebration and reflection on the bold spirit of discovery, as embodied by Christopher Columbus. Over time, it has evolved to become an integral part of the national holiday calendar, an occasion for various festivities, parades, and, notably, a significant moment of recognition and pride for the Italian-American community.

Columbus Day

Columbus Day Celebrations

Columbus Day has traditionally been marked by a series of celebrations and events commemorating the explorer’s voyage and the broader epoch known as the Age of Discovery. These observances often include grand parades featuring floats, bands, and a variety of cultural performances. These parades, often held in cities with a substantial Italian-American population, not only celebrate Columbus’ journey but also reflect the richness of Italian-American heritage and their contributions to American history.

In addition to parades, many communities observe Columbus Day with special church services, recognizing the historical and cultural significance of the event within the context of their faith. These religious services often include special readings, hymns, and prayers that honor the spirit of exploration and discovery embodied by Columbus.

Moreover, educational institutions frequently host events that delve into the historical period of the Age of Discovery. These events can range from informative lectures by historians, exhibitions displaying maps and replicas of Columbus’ ships, to interactive activities for students. The goal is often to spark interest and stimulate discussion about this era’s significance, its impacts, and its relevance today.

However, it’s important to note that the manner of observance can greatly vary across different regions in the United States. In some parts of the country, particularly areas with a strong Italian-American presence, Columbus Day is not merely a historical commemoration—it’s a vibrant celebration of their cultural heritage. For these communities, the day serves as an opportunity to express pride in their Italian roots, celebrate their unique traditions, and acknowledge the role their forebears played in shaping the United States.

But in contrast, there are regions and communities where Columbus Day is observed in a more muted fashion or overlooked entirely, reflecting the diverse attitudes towards this day. In some places, the focus has shifted towards acknowledging the experiences of indigenous communities during the time of European colonization.

Overall, Columbus Day serves as a mosaic of celebrations that vary widely across the nation, each reflecting its unique interpretation and emphasis, thereby highlighting the diverse tapestry of American society.

Columbus Day

Columbus Day Across the Globe

Columbus Day, known by different names and observed in different ways, is not exclusively celebrated in the United States. It is also recognized in various forms in other parts of the Americas and Spain, primarily:

  1. Spain: In Spain, Columbus Day is known as “Fiesta Nacional de España” or “Día de la Hispanidad.” It is a national holiday celebrated on October 12, coinciding with the day Columbus first landed in the Americas. This day is marked by a significant military parade in Madrid attended by the Spanish King and the royal family, as well as regional celebrations.
  2. Italy: While not a public holiday, some Italians observe Columbus Day to honor Christopher Columbus, who was a native of Genoa, Italy. Various cultural and educational events are held, focusing on Italian history and heritage.
  3. Latin America: Many Latin American countries, such as Mexico, Argentina, and Colombia, celebrate Día de la Raza (“Day of the Race”). This holiday is a celebration of Latin America’s mixed indigenous and European heritage, and a counter to the observation of Columbus Day. The day is often marked by cultural events and demonstrations.
  4. The Bahamas: Known as Discovery Day, this is a national holiday in The Bahamas. It commemorates Columbus’s landfall at San Salvador Island in 1492. The day is typically observed with a national holiday and various events and celebrations.
  5. Venezuela: Venezuela stopped observing Columbus Day in 2002, and it now celebrates Día de la Resistencia Indígena, or Day of Indigenous Resistance, to honor the indigenous peoples and their resistance against European invaders.

The Controversy of Columbus Day

As Columbus Day has grown in observance, so too have the controversies surrounding it. The holiday, while a symbol of pride and accomplishment for some, has become a source of discomfort and protest for others. At the core of these disputes is a profound disagreement over the holiday’s underlying narrative and symbolism.

Critics argue that Columbus Day, in honoring the Italian explorer, inadvertently glorifies a history of exploitation, violence, and cultural erasure suffered by the indigenous populations in the wake of European contact. They contend that the traditional narrative of Columbus as a heroic figure of discovery and progress fails to fully acknowledge the dark side of the Age of Exploration: the onset of brutal colonization, forced labor, cultural assimilation, and diseases that decimated Native American populations.

This perspective challenges the celebratory tone of Columbus Day, suggesting that it contributes to a whitewashed version of history that neglects the lived experiences and historical trauma of indigenous peoples. It proposes that by honoring Columbus, we are inadvertently endorsing a legacy of dispossession and suffering inflicted upon the original inhabitants of the Americas.

These criticisms have fueled a growing movement to reframe the narrative of the second Monday in October. Instead of commemorating Columbus, advocates propose the recognition of Indigenous Peoples’ Day—a day dedicated to celebrating the rich cultures, histories, and contributions of Native American communities. The aim is to provide a more balanced, respectful, and inclusive understanding of American history.

Such a shift has been adopted in various parts of the United States, with numerous cities, counties, and states officially replacing Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples’ Day. This emerging trend reflects an evolving consciousness about historical interpretations, a recognition of past injustices, and a commitment to honoring the resilience and heritage of Native American populations.

Despite the ongoing debate, what is clear is that the controversy surrounding Columbus Day has initiated an important dialogue about the complexities of history and the necessity of inclusivity in our collective memory and commemoration practices.

Columbus Day

Indigenous Peoples’ Day: A New Recognition

Indigenous Peoples’ Day stands as a significant milestone in the ongoing movement to acknowledge the historical and cultural contributions of Native Americans and rectify historical injustices. This alternative to Columbus Day emerged in the waning years of the 20th century, marking a distinct shift in societal recognition of indigenous heritage and rights.

The genesis of Indigenous Peoples’ Day can be traced back to Berkeley, California, in 1992, the quincentennial of Columbus’s arrival in the Americas. Amid a climate of heightened awareness of indigenous rights and growing disapproval of the glorification of Columbus’s voyages, the city decided to forgo Columbus Day. Instead, they ushered in the first official Indigenous Peoples’ Day, setting a precedent that other locales would soon follow.

The intent of Indigenous Peoples’ Day is to serve as a counterpoint to the traditional narrative of Columbus Day. It provides an occasion to honor the rich cultures, diverse histories, and significant contributions of Native Americans to the development of North America and the world. It is also a day to reflect on the struggles and resilience of indigenous populations in the face of colonization and displacement.

As the years have passed, Indigenous Peoples’ Day has garnered considerable momentum. Today, numerous states, cities, and universities across the United States have replaced Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples’ Day or recognize both holidays concurrently. The growing acceptance of Indigenous Peoples’ Day demonstrates a shift in societal attitudes, illustrating a broader trend towards acknowledging historical injustices, promoting cultural diversity, and advancing indigenous rights.

It’s important to note that Indigenous Peoples’ Day isn’t just about rectifying historical narratives; it’s also about celebrating the living cultures and communities of indigenous peoples today. It provides an opportunity to educate the public about contemporary Native American life, shedding light on the issues they continue to face while celebrating their vibrant cultures, traditions, and enduring spirit.

The Evolving Debate

The conversation surrounding Columbus Day and Indigenous Peoples’ Day is a dynamic, evolving dialogue, a living testament to the complexities of historical interpretation and memory. At its heart, this debate isn’t merely about choosing which day to observe. It’s a manifestation of deeper, more significant discussions around historical representation, collective memory, and social justice.

This debate forces us to examine how we remember our past, who we honor, and whose stories we highlight. It brings to light the often overlooked narratives and experiences of indigenous peoples, prompting a reconsideration of the way history has been traditionally taught and understood. More than ever, there’s a growing emphasis on presenting a nuanced and balanced view of history—one that equally acknowledges the heroic feats of exploration as well as the harsh realities of colonization and its aftermath.

In this discourse, the voices of Native Americans and their advocates have become increasingly pronounced, demanding recognition of the detrimental impact of European colonization on indigenous populations. This shift in dialogue underscores a broader societal trend towards acknowledging marginalized histories, fostering cultural inclusivity, and rectifying historical injustices.

The issue of whether to observe Columbus Day or Indigenous Peoples’ Day—or both—reflects the current cultural and historical landscape, one in which perspectives are increasingly diverse and multi-dimensional. It reflects a society grappling with its past, seeking to reconcile the celebration of its discovery and expansion with the acknowledgment of the significant costs borne by indigenous peoples.

As the debate continues, the trend towards adopting Indigenous Peoples’ Day indicates an evolving awareness of indigenous issues and a desire for a more accurate, more inclusive historical narrative. Regardless of where one stands on the issue, what’s clear is that this discussion is prompting a reassessment of our shared past, stimulating dialogue and reflection, and thus contributing to a more informed and enlightened societal perspective.

Ultimately, this ongoing dialogue represents a vital step towards mutual understanding and reconciliation, offering a platform for respect, recognition, and healing. It serves as a reminder of the power of history, not just as a record of our past, but as a guidepost for our present actions and future aspirations.

Columbus Day


In conclusion, the multifaceted nature of Columbus Day serves as a mirror reflecting the intricate tapestry of our shared history. It underscores the richness, diversity, and at times, the polarizing aspects of our collective past, highlighting how historical events can be perceived differently depending on one’s viewpoint.

Reflecting upon Columbus Day and its corresponding counter-celebration, Indigenous Peoples’ Day, reveals contrasting narratives and interpretations. On one hand, Columbus Day celebrates a bold voyage that irrevocably shaped the course of world history, marking the meeting of two worlds previously unaware of each other. On the other hand, Indigenous Peoples’ Day brings to light the harsh realities faced by native populations due to European colonization, demanding a more inclusive and empathetic understanding of history that takes into account the experiences of marginalized communities.

As we navigate these contrasting narratives, it becomes increasingly vital to foster an environment of open dialogue and mutual respect. Diverse perspectives should not only be acknowledged but actively sought out and included in the conversation, providing a more complete understanding of our historical legacy. This dialogue is essential for fostering empathy, enhancing mutual understanding, and healing historical wounds.

Moreover, the debate surrounding Columbus Day serves as an invitation—a call to action—for all of us to delve deeper into our collective past. It encourages us to continually question, learn, and engage in discussions that shape our understanding and remembrance of history.

In the end, Columbus Day and Indigenous Peoples’ Day are not just about marking historical events. They are about how we as a society remember our past, understand our present, and envision our future. They serve as a reminder that history is not static, but a living, evolving narrative—one that we are all a part of and have the power to shape.

F.A.Q. About Columbus Day

Here are answers to a few common questions you may have about Columbus Day:

What Is Columbus Day?

Columbus Day, observed on the second Monday of October in the United States, commemorates Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the Americas on October 12, 1492. It’s also a contentious holiday due to its impact on indigenous peoples.

When Is Columbus Day 2023?

Columbus Day in 2023 falls on Monday, October 9th. It’s always observed on the second Monday of October in the United States.

Why Celebrate Columbus Day?

Columbus Day is celebrated to honor Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the Americas in 1492, marking the beginning of European exploration and the historical significance of that event.

Was Christopher Columbus Spanish or Italian?

Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer commissioned by Spain.

Who Found America First, Before Columbus?

Before Columbus, the Vikings, led by Leif Erikson, are believed to have reached North America around the 11th century, making them the first known Europeans to discover America.

Next Columbus Day Dates

Table with upcoming Columbus Day dates:


Table With the Yearly Holidays and Observances

Table with the main Holidays and annual Celebrations in the US.

New Year’s DayCinco de MayoColumbus Day
Martin Luther King Jr. DayMother’s DayHalloween
Valentine’s DayMemorial DayElection Day
Presidents’ DayFlag DayVeterans Day
St. Patrick’s DayFather’s DayThanksgiving Day
Easter SundayJuneteenthBlack Friday
Easter MondayIndependence DayChristmas Day
Tax DayLabor DayNew Year’s Eve
Related Categories: Holidays

More printable calendar templates

How to print this calendar

After clicking the “Download” button, save the archived PDF file on your computer. Once it’s completed downloading, unpack the archived PDF and open it in your favorite PDF viewer program/application. From there on, you can probably find the “Print” option listed under the “File” menu.

2024 calendars